20 1. Loading Data

20.1 Selecting Ingest Method

The Data-Ingest application is capable of loading data from the DataONE data federation and from the user’s local machine. The first step in the workflow is therefore to select an upload method. The application defaults to uploading from DataONE. To upload data from a local device, simply select the radio button titled Local Files.

20.1.1 DataONE Upload Example

Select Method

The DataONE download feature allows the user to download data at a given doi or DataONE specific package id. To do so, enter the doi or identifier in the Import From DataONE field and select download. The download process may take a couple of minutes to run depending on the number of files in the dataONE package. This may be a convenient option if the user does not wish to download files directly to their local machine. Once the files have been successfully downloaded from DataONE, they are displayed in a table. Before proceeding to the next step, the user can select a file to ingest by clicking on the corresponding row in the data table.

20.2 Local Upload Example

To upload local files, the user should first select the Local Files button. From there, the user can upload files from their local machines by selecting Browse or by dragging and dropping files into the text box. The files will begin uploading automatically. From there, the user should select a file to ingest and then select the Next Step button.
After this step, the workflow is identical for both methods. However, please note that if it becomes necessary to switch from loading data via DataONE to uploading local files after the first step, please restart the application.

Drag and Drop

Drag and Drop


20.3 2. Creating an Input Record

Creating an input record requires some basic metadata about the file that is being ingested. Each entry field is briefly explained below.

  • Site: To link the selected file with a site, the user can scroll or type to search all the sites in PEcAn. See Example:
    Choose Site
  • Parent: To link the selected file with another dataset, type to search existing datasets in the Parent field.

  • Name: this field should be autofilled by selecting a file in step 1.

  • Format: If the selected file has an existing format name, the user can search and select in the Format field. If the selected file’s format is not already in pecan, the user can create a new format by selecting Create New Format. Once this new format is created, it will automatically populate the Format box and the Current Mimetype box (See Section 3).

  • Mimetype: If the format already exists, select an existing mimetype.

  • Start and End Date and Time: Inputs can be entered manually or by using the user interface. See example

Choose FIle for Ingest

  • Notes: Describe the data that is being uploaded. Please include any citations or references.

20.4 3. Creating a format record

If it is necessary to add a new format to PEcAn, the user should fill out the form attached to the Create New Format button. The inputs to this form are described below:

  • Mimetype: type to search existing mimetypes. If the mimetype is not in that list, please click on the link Create New Mimetype and create a new mimetype via the BETY website.

  • New Format Name: Add the name of the new format. Please exclude spaces from the name. Instead please use underscores "_".

  • Header: If there is space before the first line of data in the dataset, please select Yes

  • Skip: The number of lines in the header that should be skipped before the data.

  • Please enter notes that describe the format.

Create New Format

20.5 4. Formats_Variables Record

The final step in the ingest process is to register a formats-variables record. This record links pecan variables with variables from the selected data.

  • Variable: PEcAn variable that is equivalent to variable in selected file.

  • Name: The variable name in the imported data need only be specified if it differs from the BETY variable name.

  • Unit: Should be in a format parseable by the udunits library and need only be secified if the units of the data in the file differ from the BETY standard.

  • Storage Type: Storage type need only be specified if the variable is stored in a format other than would be expected (e.g. if numeric values are stored as quoted character strings). Additionally, storage_type stores POSIX codes that are used to store any time variables (e.g. a column with a 4-digit year would be %Y).

  • Column Number: Vector of integers that list the column numbers associated with variables in a dataset. Required for text files that lack headers.
    Create New Format

Finally, the path to the ingest data is displayed in the Select Files box.

20.6 Editing records

  • Models
  • Species
  • PFTs
  • Traits
  • Inputs
  • DB files
  • Variables
  • Formats
  • (Link each section to relevant Bety tables)

20.7 Standalone tools (modules)

  • RTM
  • Photosynthesis
  • Allometry
  • benchmark::load_data

(Link to vignettes)

20.8 Loading Data in PEcAn

If you are loading data in to PEcAn for benchmarking, using the Benchmarking shiny app [provide link?] is recommended.

Data can be loaded manually using the load_data function which in turn requires providing data format information using query.format.vars and the path to the data using query.file.path.

Below is a description of the load_data function an a simple example of loading data manually.

20.8.1 Function load_data Inputs


  • data.path: path to the data that is the output of the function query.file.path (see example below)
  • format: R list object that is the output of the function query.format.vars (see example below)


  • start_year = NA:
  • end_year = NA:
  • site = NA
  • vars.used.index=NULL Output

  • R data frame containing the requested variables converted in to PEcAn standard name and units and time steps in POSIX format.

20.8.2 Example

The data for this example has already been entered in to the database. To add new data go to new data documentation.

To load the Ameriflux data for the Harvard Forest (US-Ha1) site.

  1. Create a connection to the BETY database. This can be done using R function

    where the complete path to the config.php is specified. See here for an example config.php file.

  2. Look up the inputs record for the data in BETY.



    To find the input ID, either look at

  3. Additional arguments to query.format.vars are optional

    1. If you only want to load a subset of dates in the data, specify start and end year, otherwise all data will be loaded.
    2. If you only want to load a select list of variables from the data, look up their IDs in BETY, otherwise all variables will be loaded.
  4. In R run

    Examine the resulting R list object to make sure it returned the correct information.

    The example format contains the following objects:

    The first 4 rows of the table format$vars looks like this:

    bety_name variable_id input_name input_units storage_type column_number bety_units mstmip_name mstmip_units pecan_name pecan_units
    air_pressure 554 PA kPa 19 Pa Psurf Pa Psurf Pa
    airT 86 TA celsius 4 degrees C Tair K Tair K
    co2atm 135 CO2_1 umol mol-1 20 umol mol-1 CO2air micromol mol-1 CO2air micromol mol-1
    datetime 5000000001 TIMESTAMP_START ymd_hms %Y%m%d%H%M 1 ymd_hms NA NA datetime ymd_hms
  5. Get the path to the data

  6. Load the data